The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and increased initiatives to reduce pollution. The Katowice Package, adopted at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24) in December 2018, contains common and detailed rules, procedures and guidelines that operationalise the Paris Agreement. In addition, countries aim to “reach a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible.” The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   The Paris Agreement is a bridge between today`s policies and climate neutrality before the end of the century. As a contribution to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive national climate protection plans (nationally defined contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement charts the way forward. Although both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement aim to combat climate change, there are important differences between them. The level of NDCs set by each country sets the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism  to force a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date and no application if a target set in an NDC is not met.   There will only be a “Name and Shame” system or, as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, told cbs News (USA), a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement has no consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile.
A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.  It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make emission reduction commitments and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some important reasons why the deal is so important: Turkey has since argued that it is a developing country and has been granted special circumstances that allow it to refuse to provide funds. But he still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan says must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal. India`s INDC highlighted the challenges of eradicating poverty while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. About 24% of the world`s population without access to electricity (304 million) lived in India. Nevertheless, the country has planned to “reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030” compared to 2005 levels.
The country has also tried to get about 40 percent of its electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030, not fossil fuels. The INDC noted that implementation plans from domestic resources would not be affordable: it estimated that at least $2.5 trillion would be needed to implement climate action by 2030. India would achieve this goal through technology transfer (the relocation of capacity and equipment from more developed to less developed countries [SMOs]) and international financing, including support from the Green Climate Fund (a programme designed to support populations vulnerable to the effects of climate change through investments in low-emission technologies and climate-resilient development). (b) improving the capacity to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and promoting climate resilience and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions in a way that does not compromise food production; Iran, Iraq and Libya – all among the 14 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the deal. .